Katalin Kariko, Drew Weissman
Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman got the Nobel Prize for research that helped create the first mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.
Kariko, who was born in Hungary, and Weissman, who's American, worked together at the University of Pennsylvania. They started messing around with something called mRNA way back in the late '90s. In 2005, they found out something really important. The group that gives out the award, the Karolinska Institute, said their work made it possible for Pfizer and Moderna to make COVID-19 vaccines.
Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz and Anne L’Huillier
Nobel Prize for doing cool experiments with super-fast light flashes. These flashes are so quick that they last only a tiny fraction of a second, called an "attosecond" (to give you an idea: one attosecond is to one second what one second is to about 31.71 billion years).
Their work helps us see stuff that's really small, like inside atoms and molecules. One awesome thing we can do with this is check out blood samples using quick light flashes. This could let us find diseases like lung cancer way earlier than before.
Moungi Bawendi, Louis Brus and Alexei Ekimov
Nobel Prize for finding and making quantum dots. These tiny particles act funky because of quantum stuff. Scientists think they might lead to bendy electronics, itty-bitty sensors, slim solar panels, and secret quantum chats.
On Thursday, Norwegian writer John Fosse got the Nobel Prize for literature. The Swedish Academy praised him for his unique plays and writings that express the unspoken. At 64, Fosse's written loads: plays, novels, short stories, kids' books, poems, and essays, and they're in about 50 languages.
Nobel Peace Prize
Mohammadi spent years in jail and is famous for standing up for Iranian women's rights.
"Women, life, freedom" said the head of the Nobel Committee, using the slogan of Iran's women's movement when naming Mohammadi the winner.